A functional endometrium with normal endometrial regeneration is crucial for embryo implantation and pregnancy. In assisted reproductive techniques (ART), science has today come far when it comes to producing high quality embryos through in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and optimizing hormonal levels in women. The non-functioning endometrium that does not allow embryo implantation however still remains a major obstacle on the road to success in ART.
Today, the most widely used method to assess endometrial receptivity status is by ultrasound. Though ultrasound is the best method yet there are limitations and disadvantages to this method. Most notably the level of prediction is low, it is expensive and assessment differs between investigators. There is an urgent need for new methods for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial biopsies can provide some information but there is a need for a non-invasive method. Recently it has been suggested that the collection and analysis of uterine fluid could be one such method. So it has been demonstrated that protein composition in uterine fluid varies over the menstrual cycle and that it further differs between fertile and infertile women.
Recent work has showed that exosomes carrying micro RNA (miRNA) are present in uterine fluid and suggested their potential role as a biomarker for endometrial receptivity. miRNA is known to be stable and present in tissue, blood, and other body fluids and miRNA expression in different types of cells constitutes specific patterns which further supports the potential as a biomarker.
With the advancement of analytical techniques such as RNA sequencing, sensitive mass spectral analysis we can analyze molecules that are expressed in very minute quantities. This opens up possibilities to explore novel molecular markers in biological samples. We will adopt state-of-art, advanced analytical techniques to analyze differentially expressed molecules in uterine fluid.