Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) inhibits HIV-1 replication to undetectable levels in the blood within weeks after treatment initiation in the vast majority of patients. However, cART is not efficient of eradicating the virus from long-lived cells in the reservoir that protect it from antiretroviral drugs or immune surveillance.
Latency is defined as an infection state in which no viral particles are produced from the cells and is one of several mechanisms used by HIV-1 for its persistence within the infected host. Studies suggest that proviral HIV-1 DNA preferentially integrates into the euchromatin region. Transcriptional interference could be one possible mechanism responsible for suppression of the integrated proviral DNA expression. The impact of HIV-1 infection on cellular gene expression has been investigated in the past by gene expression arrays but not in a group of patients who controlled the HIV-1 infection without any therapy for more than >10 years. This group of patients are called Elite Controller (EC). In this study we would like to perform human transcriptom analysis of in an Swedish EC cohort and compare the data with normal HIV-1 progressor.