A cellular automata and level set approach is used for the modelling of the microstructure evolution in metalica materials. The state of the material is determined by parameters such as grain size, grain orientation, dislocation density etc. Macroscopic properties that are influenced by the microstructure include such important quantities as strength, ductility and resistance to creep deformation. Also the strain rate dependence of the material is influenced by the grain size.
The perhaps most well-known, macroscopic, observation of grain size influence on material behavior is the Hall-Petch relation, indicating a proportionality between the yield stress and the inverse of the square-root of the average grain size in the material.